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              Executive   |   Legislative   |   Judicial
American Independent nominee for President; 2004 Republican challenger for IL Senate:
Alan Keyes on the Issues

Alan Keyes on Abortion

  • God-given right to life from fertilization to natural death. (Aug 2008)
  • Recognize the personhood of all unborn children. (Aug 2008)
  • Principles in Declaration of Independence prohibit abortion. (Oct 2007)
  • Embryonic stem cell research experiments with human life. (Oct 2007)
  • Constitutional amendment defining life from conception. (Sep 2007)
  • Preamble to Constitution includes our unborn posterity. (Sep 2007)
  • Nominate only judges who refuse to legislate from the bench. (Sep 2007)
  • Save “snowflake babies”: no experiments on frozen embryos. (Sep 2007)
  • No tax funding for organizations that promote abortion. (Sep 2007)
  • Pro-choice stance is the slaveholder’s position. (Oct 2004)
  • Running because of Obama’s extreme pro-abortion votes. (Aug 2004)
  • Constitutional “posterity” implies protecting the unborn. (Aug 2004)
  • Do everything to overthrow Roe vs. Wade to acknowledge God. (Oct 2003)
  • Withdraws; job done since GOP & V.P. are both pro-life. (Jul 2000)
  • Not OK to kill child of 6; not OK to kill child in the womb. (Jan 2000)
  • God’s choice: “Just Say No” to abortion. (Jan 2000)
  • Abortion is unjust and immoral. (Jan 1999)
  • Mothers have no right to take a fetus’ life. (Jan 1999)
  • Abortion issue epitomizes corruption of freedom. (May 1996)
  • Only exception is to preserve life of mother. (Jun 1995)

Alan Keyes on Budget & Economy

  • Economics should be based on family household management. (Oct 2007)
  • Rein in out-of-control spending and balance the budget. (Sep 2007)
  • Supports balanced budget amendment to the Constitution. (Sep 2004)
  • Can’t address budget deficit until we address moral deficit. (Aug 1995)
  • More $ for defense, NASA, parks; less for Ag, educ, arts. (Jan 2000)
  • Enforce spending limits to balance the budget. (Jan 2000)
  • Amend the Constitution to limit borrowing and spending. (Jan 1999)
  • Seeing people merely as consumers is bad for moral fiber. (May 1996)

Alan Keyes on Civil Rights

  • Federal Marriage Amendment to define the natural family. (Aug 2008)
  • ‘Separation of church & state‘ misinterprets Constitution. (Oct 2007)
  • Gay marriage invalid because gay couples cannot reproduce. (Oct 2004)
  • The path to your freedom is standing firm for God’s will. (Feb 2004)
  • Protect religion from the state, but not vice versa. (Feb 2004)
  • Right to acknowledge God is the foundation of all our rights. (Feb 2004)
  • Public display of the Ten Commandments is a state’s right. (Oct 2003)
  • The belief that you can’t legislate morality is nonsensical. (Oct 2003)
  • We live under the tyranny of the federal judges. (Feb 2004)
  • Leaders must face racial bigotry, not ignore it. (Feb 2000)
  • Our rights come from God, not from the Constitution. (Jan 2000)
  • Ten Commandments & prayer should be in schools. (Jan 2000)
  • Conducting gov’t in Spanish assaults our linguistic unity. (Jan 2000)
  • No separation of church & state; fight uniform irreligion. (Jan 2000)

    Affirmative Action

  • We cannot cure a past injustice with another injustice. (Oct 2007)
  • Preferential affirmative action patronizes blacks & women. (Oct 2007)
  • Address Black community with solid Republican principles. (Sep 2007)
  • Preferential affirmative action is patronizing. (Aug 2004)
  • Preferential affirmative action is patronizing. (Jan 1999)
  • Black heritage comes from survival in America, not Africa. (May 1996)
  • Affirmative action turns back the clock. (Aug 1995)

    Gay Marriage

  • Wrong to treat sexual behavior like race. (Oct 2007)
  • Marriage exists for the sake of procreation. (Oct 2007)
  • Massachusetts gay marriage required judges legislating. (Oct 2007)
  • Defend the natural family against the gay lobby. (Sep 2007)
  • We need a constitutional amendment to stop gay marriage. (Sep 2007)
  • Marriage can’t be understood apart from procreation. (Oct 2004)
  • Gay sex is selfish hedonism. (Sep 2004)
  • Gay marriage destroys fundamental moral institutions. (Jul 2004)
  • HIV workshop violates parents who think gay is immoral. (Jul 2000)
  • Signed pledge to reinstitute ban on gays in military. (Jan 2000)
  • Oppose gay agenda in military & marriage laws. (Jan 2000)
  • Warns that Supreme Court has advanced gay marriage agenda. (May 1999)
  • “Hate crime” laws will be used to punish anti-gay opinions. (Oct 1998)
  • Gay rights aren’t like racial rights, because it’s behavior. (May 1996)

Alan Keyes on Corporations

  • Corporate elites want cheap immigrant labor. (Sep 2007)
  • Protect workers’ pensions when companies declare bankruptcy. (Sep 2004)

Alan Keyes on Crime

  • Death penalty sometimes essential to respect for life. (Oct 2007)
  • Opposes lowering age for trying children as adults. (Oct 2007)
  • Let neighborhood justices of the peace determine sentencing. (Sep 2007)
  • Death penalty is about universal justice. (Sep 2007)
  • Opposes “hate crimes” legislation. (Sep 2007)
  • Prosecute all illegal adult pornography. (Sep 2007)
  • Enforcement should target criminals, not social conditions. (Oct 2004)
  • No conflict between pro life and pro death penalty stances. (Oct 2004)
  • Sentencing gang members to death sends strong social message. (Oct 2004)
  • Don’t lower age of adult criminal prosecutions. (Sep 2004)
  • Failing to revere God results in violence and crime. (Oct 2003)
  • Diallo verdict does not need federal review. (Mar 2000)
  • Without death penalty for murder, we disregard life. (Jan 2000)
  • Stricter penalties; truth in sentencing. (Jan 2000)
  • “Hate crime” laws inappropriately punish attitudes. (Jun 1999)
  • Supports capital punishment. (Jul 1996)
  • External violence results from internal lawlessness. (May 1996)
  • Capital punishment is necessary to show respect for life. (Apr 1995)

Alan Keyes on Drugs

  • Stricter drug penalties; more border security. (Jan 2000)
  • It’s a moral crisis, not a drug problem. (Oct 1999)
  • Drug problem is a symptom of governmental lack of discipline. (Oct 1999)
  • Increase penalties for selling drugs. (Jul 1996)

Alan Keyes on Education

  • Sex education is private responsibility; not for school. (Oct 2007)
  • Impeach judges for barring legislature prayers to Jesus. (Sep 2007)
  • Present scientific facts that support creationism. (Sep 2007)
  • Equal funds for abstinence as contraceptive-based education. (Sep 2007)
  • Schools forfeit funds if they expose kids to gay propaganda. (Sep 2007)
  • Parents, not schools, should be responsible for sex ed. (Oct 2004)
  • Violence in schools due to loss of moral heritage. (Dec 1999)
  • Sex education should be abstinence-based. (Jan 1999)
  • Black education historically focused on family & church. (May 1996)
  • Government corrupts higher education. (Feb 1996)
  • College tuition rises due to taxpayer subsidies. (Feb 1996)

    School Choice

  • Parents & local citizens know better than educrat masters. (Oct 2007)
  • Empower parents to choose schools that reflect their values. (Sep 2007)
  • Break up the government monopoly on public education. (Sep 2004)
  • Replace the Department of Education with parental control. (Jan 2000)
  • Pro-voucher; gov’t out of K-12 education. (Jan 2000)
  • School’s bureaucratic monopoly hurts teachers & students. (Jan 2000)
  • Money should follow parents’ education choices. (Dec 1999)
  • Value-free public education is brainwashing. (Jan 1999)
  • Empower parents against the monopoly of public schools. (Jan 1999)
  • Let communities decide school rules like all-male academies. (May 1996)

    School Prayer

  • We allowed the judges to drive God out of our schools. (Dec 2007)
  • Prohibiting school prayer is symptom of deeper problem. (Oct 2007)
  • Tax-credited programs for Christian schooling. (Sep 2007)
  • Pray in the classroom, pray in the hallways, pray everywhere. (Aug 2004)
  • Use bully pulpit to advocate prayer, not coerce it. (Dec 1999)
  • Let God into schools to keep Columbine shooters out. (Jul 1999)
  • The Constitution does not forbid prayer in schools. (Jan 1999)
  • We need prayer in schools and by educators. (Jan 1999)

Alan Keyes on Energy & Oil

  • Need to develop proper alternative fuels. (Oct 2004)
  • Explore & exploit ANWR, while respecting ecology. (Jan 2000)
  • Against Kyoto Treaty; for market-based solutions. (Jan 2000)
  • CAFE standards kill - abolish them. (Oct 1999)

Alan Keyes on Environment

  • Supports marketable pollution credits; against regulations. (Jan 2000)

Alan Keyes on Families & Children

  • Culture of selfish hedonism replaces marriage partnership. (Sep 2007)
  • 2-parent households rear kids with better health & education. (Sep 2007)
  • Respect God-given institution of the natural family. (Sep 2007)
  • The God-ordained family preceded the government. (Sep 2007)
  • We have suffered because of our abandonment of His name. (Oct 2003)
  • Don’t lower crime age as a result of adult moral failure. (Jan 2000)
  • Save kids’ souls-they don’t need free speech. (Jan 2000)
  • Kids need love from a two-parent marriage. (Jan 2000)
  • Health insurance is family responsibility, not government’s. (Jan 2000)
  • Radical gay agenda is destroying the family. (Jan 2000)
  • Shape our children’s consciences in the fear of God. (Dec 1999)
  • Disintegration of the family causes social ills. (Jun 1999)

Alan Keyes on Foreign Policy

  • Commitment to Israel is a moral obligation. (Oct 2007)
  • No troops to Darfur; but support regional aid. (Sep 2007)
  • Don’t pressure Israel to give up land for promise of peace. (Sep 2007)
  • Monitor the eradication of legal slavery in Sudan. (Sep 2007)
  • Avoid ratifying Law of the Sea Treaty. (Sep 2007)
  • Work with indigenous elements in Iran. (Oct 2004)
  • Renounce interference with affairs of other nations. (Aug 2004)
  • Routine military intervention is wrong. (Feb 2000)
  • Africa: No money for AIDS, because money won’t cure AIDS. (Jan 2000)
  • South Africa: Venture capital instead of foreign aid. (May 1996)
  • Rwanda: Humanitarian grounds 150x more than in Bosnia. (Jan 1996)

    China

  • Panama Canal: Keep US in; keep China Out. (Jan 2000)
  • Clarifying commitment to Taiwan avoids Chinese attack. (Dec 1999)
  • Military intervention to ensure Taiwan’s self-determination. (Dec 1999)
  • Call to account those responsible for Chinese espionage. (May 1999)
  • China is an egregious abuser of human life and human rights. (Sep 1995)

    United Nations

  • United Nations: source of dangerously naive globalist dreams. (Oct 2007)
  • I’ve never been a supporter of the UN, even while Ambassador. (Sep 2007)
  • Against paying UN until they reform. (Oct 1999)
  • Fostered policy of withholding UN funds; UN wastes US taxes. (Oct 1999)
  • If the UN undermines US sovereignty, we should quit. (Jan 1999)

Alan Keyes on Free Trade

  • We gave away portion of sovereignty when we entered WTO. (Oct 2007)
  • One-on-one trade agreements; with tariffs for dumping. (Oct 2007)
  • North American Union Superhighway subverts sovereignty. (Oct 2007)
  • Free trade gives excessive authority to international groups. (Oct 2007)
  • North American Union is betrayal of our sovereignty. (Sep 2007)
  • Trade sanctions on Saudi Arabia for persecuting Christians. (Sep 2007)
  • China trade contingent on human rights & product safety. (Sep 2007)
  • No NAFTA Superhighway from Canada to Mexico. (Sep 2007)
  • Entering WTO gave away part of our sovereignty. (Feb 2000)
  • Out of WTO: no legislation without representation. (Jan 2000)
  • Separate naturalization (legal) from border patrols. (Jan 2000)
  • Banks and American clout should help farmers. (Jan 2000)
  • WTO allows dictators to decide our future - US out. (Dec 1999)
  • WTO is not representative; hence unconstitutional. (Dec 1999)
  • Tariffs make foreigners share burden of US government. (Apr 1998)

Alan Keyes on Government Reform

  • Strictly limit government to the Enumerated Powers. (Aug 2008)
  • Focus on moral sovereignty, tax reform, & sealing the border. (Dec 2007)
  • Campaign finance reform violates freedom of association. (Oct 2007)
  • Avoid incumbency protection: no union or corporate donors. (Oct 2007)
  • Terri Schiavo case was about judicial power over executive. (Oct 2007)
  • No representation for DC; it has a unique unifying status. (Sep 2007)
  • Disallow lawsuits that stop public officials invoking God. (Sep 2007)
  • Ok if church identifies candidates who favor its principles. (Sep 2007)
  • Reinstate that state legislatures elect US Senators. (Oct 2004)
  • We have surrendered our personal sovereignty to government. (Aug 2004)
  • Surrendering moral government to courts surrenders freedom. (Feb 2004)
  • Congress should have the last word, not the Supreme Court. (Oct 2003)
  • Obeying the dictate of federal judges means no Constitution. (Oct 2003)
  • Call halt to “War on this” and “War on that”. (Aug 1995)
  • Only valid reason to go to Washington is to break up power. (Aug 1995)
  • Campaign reform is hypocritical: leave office instead. (Mar 2000)
  • Campaigns: No union $, no corporate $, no foreign $. (Feb 2000)
  • “Dollar vote” only if you can “ballot vote”. (Jan 2000)
  • Wife Jocelyn’s issues: anti-poverty & anti-abortion. (Dec 1999)
  • Campaign reforms: unconstitutional “incumbency protection”. (Dec 1999)
  • Unlimited contributions, but only by people, & publicized. (Dec 1999)
  • Campaign reform: No $ limits; full disclosure. (Jul 1996)

Alan Keyes on Gun Control

  • Fiercely defend the Second Amendment. (Aug 2008)
  • Gun control agenda mistrusts ordinary citizens. (Oct 2007)
  • Fundamental DUTY of free citizens to keep & bear arms. (Oct 2007)
  • Gun control mentality means crooks have all the guns. (Oct 2004)
  • Second Amendment not about hunting, but about national duty. (Aug 2004)
  • No federal role in gun safety-leave it to states & parents. (Jan 2000)
  • Teach high school students to use guns. (Dec 1999)
  • Columbine killers lacked moral development - not gun laws. (Jun 1999)
  • Gun control is an outcome of godless materialism. (May 1999)
  • Control people’s passions - not the things they use. (May 1999)
  • Columbine killers lacked moral development - not gun laws. (May 1999)
  • Against banning guns since that won’t end violence. (Jan 1999)
  • Supports right to bear arms for all types and uses of guns. (Jan 1999)
  • No bans on legal firearms; allow concealed carry. (Jul 1996)

Alan Keyes on Health Care

  • Euthanasia violates unalienable right to life. (Oct 2007)
  • Consumer in charge; no government-controlled health care. (Oct 2007)
  • Before bringing back family doctor, bring back the family. (Sep 2007)
  • Oppose mandated health insurance and universal coverage. (Sep 2007)
  • Protect disabled and vulnerable people like Terri Schiavo. (Sep 2007)
  • Insurance reward for avoiding tobacco, alcohol, obesity. (Sep 2007)
  • Give people generic drugs information to save their money. (Oct 2004)
  • People should take care of their own health. (Oct 2004)
  • Sensibly cap malpractice awards. (Sep 2004)
  • Health care choice will save money for long-term health care. (Jan 2000)
  • AIDS is a moral crisis based on licentious behavior. (Jan 2000)
  • Patient rights & HMO rights are not federal responsibility. (Jan 2000)
  • Allocation of research funds not a political decision. (Jan 2000)
  • Health priorities: research; cost control; moral effects. (Jan 2000)
  • Let market determine health payments, not bureaucrats. (Dec 1999)
  • Right to die usurps the Declaration and God. (Jan 1999)
  • Universal health ID’s are a threat to liberty. (Jul 1998)
  • Focus on prevention and finance health care accordingly. (May 1996)

Alan Keyes on Homeland Security

  • Peace through strength: supremely strong & prepared military. (Aug 2008)
  • Stand unalterably opposed to all who commit terrorist acts. (Aug 2008)
  • Killing innocents by terror is same evil as by abortion. (Sep 2007)
  • Protect military chaplains’ right to pray in preferred faith. (Sep 2007)
  • Allow Christian symbols in national war memorials. (Sep 2007)
  • No student visas to citizens of terrorist states. (Sep 2007)
  • Doctrine of terror is killing innocent people. (Sep 2007)
  • Develop a plan that will get us away from our oil dependence. (Oct 2004)
  • Don’t use Patriot Act to take away freedoms. (Oct 2004)
  • Send a clear message to the entire terror network. (Oct 2004)
  • Take preemptive action only if a probable threat exists. (Oct 2004)
  • Greatest threat is not external, but what we do to ourselves. (Nov 2003)
  • Set aside the ABM treaty and build SDI. (Feb 2000)
  • Rapidly develop & deploy an anti-missile defense system. (Feb 2000)
  • What you see is what you get over “don’t ask, don’t tell.”. (Feb 2000)
  • Ban homosexuals in the military. (Jan 2000)
  • Missile defense umbrella including Taiwan. (Dec 1999)
  • Keep some forces abroad, but avoid globalism. (Nov 1999)
  • Defend human rights & self-govt within national interests. (Nov 1999)
  • Kosovo sets precedent for more future intervention. (Jun 1999)
  • Supports missile strikes against terrorists abroad. (Aug 1998)
  • Citadel and VMI should remain all male. (Feb 1996)
  • No women in combat. (Jun 1995)

Alan Keyes on Immigration

  • Vigilant maintenance of our sovereign territory and borders. (Aug 2008)
  • Enforce existing laws against illegal immigration. (Oct 2007)
  • Sovereignty is betrayed when our borders are not defended. (Oct 2007)
  • Immigration, yes; colonization, no: oppose guest workers. (Oct 2007)
  • Control border first, or no other laws mater. (Sep 2007)
  • Blacks are hurt first by cheap immigrant labor. (Sep 2007)
  • Excessive multiculturalism weakens American culture. (Sep 2007)
  • Rescind Bush’s order allowing Mexican trucks on US roads. (Sep 2007)
  • Oppose amnesty & guest workers until unemployment under 5%. (Sep 2007)
  • Extending privileges to non-citizens invites lawbreaking. (Sep 2004)
  • Expand legal immigration; curtail illegal immigration. (Jul 1996)

Alan Keyes on Jobs

  • We need family farms to sustain character, not to feed us. (Oct 2007)
  • Ensure job creation as means to provide health insurance. (Sep 2007)
  • Breakdown of family structure causes high black unemployment. (Sep 2007)
  • No “sexual orientation” in Employment Non-Discrimination Act. (Sep 2007)
  • Government does not create jobs, only businesses do. (Sep 2004)
  • Family farms: Decollectivize banks; withdraw from WTO. (Jan 2000)
  • Family farms are nursery of moral character. (Dec 1999)

Alan Keyes on Principles & Values

  • Nominated for president by America’s Independent Party. (Aug 2008)
  • Be authentic about who you are. (Dec 2007)
  • We don’t fight for victory; we fight for liberty & faith. (Sep 2007)
  • We face crisis of moral values and principles. (Sep 2007)
  • We can’t remain free if we don’t acknowledge God’s authority. (Sep 2007)
  • Campaigning to raise the standard of our allegiance to God. (Sep 2007)
  • Website donors asked to take a pledge for America’s revival. (Sep 2007)
  • Declares candidacy on live talk radio show. (Sep 2007)
  • Top issues: Defend life; respect for God; restore character. (Sep 2007)
  • Great principles at stake: marriage & innocent life. (Oct 2004)
  • Core values: life, liberty, faith, family, freedom. (Aug 2004)
  • Strengthen the foundations of political liberty. (Aug 2004)
  • Christianity best; but Declaration of Independence will do. (Aug 2004)
  • America’s problems rooted in moral decline. (Aug 2004)
  • Black liberal leadership are a generation of toadies. (Jul 2004)
  • Anything the government gives you destroys your liberty. (Feb 2004)
  • Separation of church and state is phony and is a weapon. (Oct 2003)
  • The real outsider for conservative Republicans. (Feb 2000)
  • Bring God back into the White House. (Jan 2000)
  • Address moral crisis or lose our liberty. (Oct 1999)
  • Core Beliefs Based on ‘Unalienable Rights’. (Jan 1999)
  • Moral bases come from Christianity via Declaration. (Jan 1999)
  • Reverence for God is foundation of justice & citizenship. (Jan 1999)
  • Against the “gay agenda”. (Jun 1998)
  • #1: Restore the moral foundations of family life. (Jul 1996)
  • Truth & right vs. wrong underlies government & society. (May 1996)
  • The crisis of our times is a crisis of character. (May 1996)

Alan Keyes on Social Security

  • Keep promises but give choice of market investments. (Oct 2007)
  • Personal retirement accounts allow investing in one’s future. (Sep 2007)
  • Keep promises but give future choice. (Sep 2004)
  • Supports privatization & Lock-box. (Jan 2000)
  • Keep our promises on Social Security benefits, guaranteed. (Nov 1999)
  • Let people who earn their money invest their own money. (Nov 1999)

Alan Keyes on Tax Reform

  • Repeal the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Amendments. (Aug 2008)
  • FairTax turns off spigot that funds political ambitions. (Dec 2007)
  • Income tax is a failed socialist experiment. (Oct 2007)
  • Replace income tax with a national sales tax. (Oct 2007)
  • Income tax exemptions for descendants of black slaves. (Sep 2004)
  • Income tax is a failed socialist experiment. (Aug 2004)
  • Sales tax is more progressive than income tax. (Aug 2004)
  • Abolish the income tax and spend money responsibly. (Jan 2000)
  • Sales tax gives control back to people. (Dec 1999)
  • Wrong to pay income taxes before basic necessities. (Dec 1999)
  • Forbes’ plan leaves IRS, and an invasive tax, intact. (Dec 1999)
  • Forbes’ plan still requires people to beg for tax cuts. (Dec 1999)
  • Replace income tax with tariffs & duties. (Oct 1999)
  • Income tax is Marxist control of entire economy. (Oct 1999)
  • Against flat tax -- a distraction for abolishing income tax. (Jan 1999)
  • Excise taxes allow citizens to control tax rate themselves. (Apr 1998)
  • “Soak the rich” schemes have socialist objectives. (May 1996)

Alan Keyes on War & Peace

  • Would not have chosen Iraq; would not have asked UN either. (Oct 2007)
  • After military victory, should have had UN nation-building. (Oct 2007)
  • Bush focuses on democracy for Iraq; not security for America. (Sep 2007)
  • Our efforts in Iraq defend against a deep & terrible threat. (Sep 2007)
  • Autonomy for Christians in Iraq’s Nineveh region. (Sep 2007)
  • Withdrawing before your enemy stops is called “defeat”. (Sep 2007)
  • War on terror is about survival; war in Iraq is about morale. (Sep 2007)
  • Needed greater effort to bring in others to Iraq. (Oct 2004)
  • War on Terror requires both intelligence and discretion. (Oct 2004)
  • Iraq War reduced probability of attack from Saddam to zero. (Oct 2004)
  • Naive to think Saddam has no connections to Al Qaeda. (Oct 2004)
  • Troops should stay in Iraq until they get the job done. (Oct 2004)
  • Preemptive strike in Iraq is a right decision. (Oct 2004)
  • There is no distinction between Afghanistan and Iraq. (Oct 2004)
  • Bush didn’t have the wisdom of hindsight in the Iraqi War. (Oct 2004)
  • Respond to facts, not Serb intentions. (Dec 1999)
  • Kosovo sets precedent for more future intervention. (Jun 1999)
  • NATO strategy against civilians is terrorism. (Jun 1999)
  • “Ends justify the means” is the path to evil. (Jun 1999)
  • Kosovo not based on human rights policy nor precedent. (Apr 1999)
  • Support Israel on moral grounds, not economic nor strategic. (May 1996)
  • Bosnian intervention MUST be approved by Congress. (Nov 1995)

Alan Keyes on Welfare & Poverty

  • Constitution does not require separation of church and state. (Aug 2004)
  • No socialism for poor children-invigorate families instead. (Jan 2000)
  • Volunteer for community service; not via government funding. (Oct 1999)
  • Shift welfare from government to the faith sector. (Oct 1999)
  • Disintegration of the family causes social ills. (Jan 1999)
  • Jewish support of welfare for blacks causes enmity. (May 1996)
  • Encourage two-parent families instead of paying baby bonus. (May 1996)